Statistics about Key Mental Health ProblemsThe term mental health covers an extremely broad and complex spectrum of emotional and psychological issues. From panic attacks right through to bulimia nervosa and post natal depression, everyone is affected by life's twists and turns in an entirely different way.
Every year millions of individuals will have their lives disrupted by a mental health problem and it is for this reason that it is important we endeavour to discover as much as possible about the development, onset and treatment of these mental health issues.
This fact-sheet is a compilation of various information, facts and figures which we hope will offer a further insight and understanding of some of the key mental health issues many of us are facing today.
Anxiety and Anxiety-Related ProblemsAs it stands, anxiety is the most common form of mental distress in the UK today, with mixed anxiety and depression affecting around 9.2 per cent of the population when last recorded in 20001.
Though there are many different forms and facets of anxiety, when stripped down to the core the issue usually revolves around an acute fear of something that has happened, occurring once again. A phobia for instance is usually a fear of an object or a situation which stems from a previous bad experience. For example, in an extreme case an individual bitten by a snake may then go onto develop an uncontrollable fear of snakes.
Milder cases of anxiety usually occur when an individual is faced with a certain situation such as giving a speech or presentation and although they will experience anxiety symptoms when faced with that particular event, action or person they are usually able to continue their everyday activities.
In contrast to the above, generalised anxiety disorder is a condition which usually impedes on an individuals ability to carry out day-to-day activities and is characterised by tension, worry, restlessness, irritability, insomnia and various other symptoms which occur on a daily basis1. Currently estimated to affect around 4.7 per cent of the UK population, generalised anxiety disorder does not stem from one object or situation in particular, but from various different stresses in the home or at work.
Types of anxiety
Characterised by severe panic attacks, over breathing, palpitations and chest pain, panic disorder usually stems from extreme anxiety. An estimated seven people out of every 1000 develop a panic disorder at some point and the prevalence among all age groups and sexes is roughly the same1.
As mentioned above, a phobia is usually an irrational fear of either on object or situations. A common symptom when faced with a phobia is that of extreme panic and usually a sufferer will go to great lengths to avoid facing their fear. According to the Office for National Statistics, around 1.9 per cent of British adults experience a phobia of some description, and women are twice as likely to be effected by this problem than men1.
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Around 1.2 percent of the UK population suffer from obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) at any one time. The condition is most commonly distinguished by repetitive behaviours which are aimed at reducing the sufferer's own anxiety. Symptoms may include repetitive hand washing, aversion to odd numbers, switching off and on a light a particular amount of times before leaving a room or an obsession with cleanliness and organisation. This behaviour stems from a fear of something bad happening if they do not, creating intrusive thoughts, fear and apprehension. Very often these symptoms lead to social alienation and severe emotional distress1.
DepressionThe central symptoms of depression tend to be depressed mood and/or a loss of pleasure in activities that you once enjoyed. There are various forms of depression, ranging from bipolar disorder through to post natal depression and the severity of symptoms and the extent to which an individual is unable to function will vary from person to person.
Prevalence of depression in adults
Though estimates vary on the number of individuals suffering with depression at any one time, the Office for National Statistics put this figure at 10 per cent of the population, or one in ten adults. In terms of how many people will develop depression at some point during their life time, the figures range from one in six to one in four2, 3.
Prevalence of treatment for depression and anxiety among adults
In 1996 the number of adults aged between 16 and 64 receiving drug treatment for depression or anxiety was an estimated 44 per 1000 men and 101 per 1000 women 4. Unfortunately, no evidence exists to which these figures are directly comparable, although the 2000 Office for National Statistics report mentioned throughout does provide some similar data. In this survey it was found that in 1993, 123 men per every 1000 and 195 women per every 1000 were suffering from neurotic disorders (including anxiety and depression) with around nine percent of those receiving drug treatment1.
The difference in the study results could be attributed to study variations, for example the ONS study only took into account drug treatment at the time of the study, as opposed to during the past 12 months.
Though all studies provide varying results, what they all seem to agree on is the fact that the percentage of people being treated for depression and anxiety has risen during the past decade. Experts are unsure whether the increase is in fact a true increase in the prevalence of these disorder, or if it is due to a rise in the number of GP prescriptions of antidepressant drugs (which are now better tolerated by patients) combined with an publicity and an increased awareness in popular media.
The stigma of mental health
During the past decade many initiatives and schemes have been introduced and piloted in a bid to raise awareness and reduce the stigma of depression amongst both the public and health care professionals. Notably the Royal College of General Practitioners 'Defeat Depression' initiative and numerous campaigns from both UK mental health charity Mind, and the Mental Health Foundation among others have all played a part in reducing the stigma surrounding mental health, thus giving many individuals the confidence to come forward and seek help5.
Depression in children
Figures concerning this matter tend to differ from study to study, though the Royal College of Psychiatrists 2005 fact-sheet on depression in children and young people estimate that around one in every 200 children under the age of 12 and two to three in every 100 teenagers suffer from depression.
Types of depression:Bipolar disorder (manic depression)
Bipolar disorder or manic depression as it is sometimes known, is characterised by the sufferer experiencing moods at either pole, one end of the spectrum being extreme highs (known as manias) and the other being intense lows.
The majority of studies estimate a lifetime prevalence rate of between one and two percent with the disorder occurring equally in both makes and females 6. Individuals who have already experienced an episode of bipolar do stand a higher chance of relapsing, but around 20 per cent of those who recover from their first episode will not have another7.
Postnatal depression, or the baby blues as it is sometimes known, can set in at any point from up to two weeks after birth to two years after birth. The condition usually see's the sufferer develop an indifference to their baby and they are often rendered unable to cope with the demands of caring for their new child.
Though the condition does occur in men, it is far more common among women and thus more statistics and studies have been conducted on it's prevalence among new mothers. A number of studies indicate that between 10 and 15 per cent or one in seven to ten mothers will experience postnatal depression, experiencing symptoms which are similar to those of general depression and will usually involve the parent becoming emotionally withdrawn and overwhelmed with feelings of despair and guilt8.
Puerperal psychosis is an extremely rare and severe form of postnatal depression, affecting between 0.1 and 0.2 per cent of all new mothers 9. Symptoms vary, but can include persecutory beliefs about the child, delusions, hallucinations and extreme mood changes. Treatment includes admission to hospital and medication such as antipsychotics and antidepressants10.
Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)
Seasonal Affective Disorder, otherwise known as the Winter Blues, is a recognised medical condition which is estimated to affect around 7 per cent of the British population between September and April11.
The condition itself is characterised by bouts of depression, sleep problems, overeating, lethargy, physical complaints and behavioural issues which tend to be triggered by seasonal change and a reduction in daylight hours (particularly during December, January and February).
There are various levels of SAD and at it's most severe it is seriously disabling and if left untreated can result in an inability to function normally if medical treatment is not sought.
In addition to this, around 17 per cent of individuals in the UK also suffer from a milder form of the condition, which is known as subsyndromal SAD, a condition which brings about similar effects to those mentioned above, but on a less extreme scale11.
Sleep problemsA huge percentage of the population from all walks of life suffer from various forms of sleep problems. Not only are sleep problems and fatigue the most common symptoms of mental distress, affecting around 29 per cent of all adults with a diagnosable mental health condition, but for many individuals they are also a problem in their own right12.
If sleep problems persist they should be discussed with a GP who will often refer a patient to a sleep clinic. Counselling may also be appropriate to help the sufferer's and their families understand and deal with problems which may occur.
Common sleep disorders:Night terrors
Night terrors are characterised by a sudden arousal from sleep, usually involving extreme panic, loud screams and movement. Initially, upon waking an individual may feel confused, disoriented, unresponsive and is often unable to remember what caused them to wake. It is also not uncommon for the sufferer to have slurred speed, to throw objects or to leave the room, all of which they will rarely be able to recall.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) estimates a prevalence of between 1 and 6 per cent in children (occurring most frequently in children aged 3-12) and 1 per cent in adults13.
Nightmare disorder is a condition which see's what are known as dream-anxiety attacks, which are essentially bad dreams with associated anxiety. Sufferers tend to be alert and aware of what is happening when they wake and are able to recall their dreams, it is this factor which differentiates this disorder from night terrors. It is very common for nightmare disorder to be triggered by a previous trauma which is relived through the dreams of the sufferer, a symptom which is often seen among those who suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder.
An estimated 10-50 per cent of children suffer from this disorder and though prevalence among adults is currently unknown, up to 50 per cent of adults report occasional nightmares13.
Sleepwalking involves a sleeping/unaware individual performing automatic behaviour such as walking and or other various functions such as wandering around the house or inside the house, looking inside cupboards, preparing and eating food etc. Sufferer's may talk and will often awake confused. The condition tends to worsen with sleep deprivation and is often a sign of a minor anxiety.
Recurrent sleepwalking affects around 5 per cent of children but certain episodes associated with the condition affects up to 30 per cent of children and 7 per cent of adults 13.
Personality disordersAccording to various studies the prevalence of personality disorders in Britain is thought to lie somewhere between 2 and 13 per cent, with the ONS estimating the prevalence rate to be around 5.4 per cent for men and 3.4 per cent for women1.
The reason for such a large variance in numerous figures is perhaps related to the fact that the concept of personality disorders is seen as controversial and certain methods of diagnosis are often questioned, with some more commonly applied to women and others more commonly applied to men.
Common Personality Disorders (please click the links for further information):
- Antisocial Personality Disorder
- Avoidant Personality Disorder
- Borderline Personality Disorder
- Dependent Personality Disorder
- Histrionic Personality Disorder
- Narcissistic Personality Disorder
- Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder
- Paranoid Personality Disorder
- Schizoid Personality Disorder
- Schizotypal Personality Disorder
SchizophreniaAn individual suffering with schizophrenia will usually experience a range of symptoms which cause a disturbance in their thoughts, feelings and perceptions. These symptoms may include depression, anxiety, fears, phobias, paranoia, thought disorders, illusions, delusions, hallucinations and anti-social behaviour.
Those suffering from this mental health problem may experience some or all of the above symptoms, but the level of severity will vary a great deal leaving some unable to cope. There has been much controversy over whether schizophrenia has any physiological or biochemical basis or whether it is 'in the mind'. However, the body of research supporting the former is ever growing and evidence suggesting that most individuals with schizophrenia do have biochemical imbalances is continuing to emerge.
Figures from the ONS suggest that around 5 per every 1000 of the population suffer from schizophrenia each year, with an additional study using these results to estimate that about 2 per cent suffer at any one time1.
Other significant findings show that though the prevalence among men aged between 15 and 24 is higher than that of women, in the 24-35 year olds age bracket it is higher among women 14. These figures add further weight to a body of research suggesting that a late onset of the illness is common for women.
Eating distressThere are various forms of eating distress and most are characterised by the sufferer either eating too much or too little for a prolonged period of time, leading to the development of an eating disorder. It is at this stage when food begins to impact an individual in an extremely negative way, often becoming the centre of a sufferers life, almost like an addiction.
In the case of anorexia nervosa a sufferer may deny themselves food when they are extremely hungry or in the case of binge eating disorder a sufferer may purge themselves on a huge amount of food. Either way food becomes an obsession and will be constantly on the mind of the sufferer.
Aside from the physical side effects such as the damage all eating disorders inflict on the body, there is also the mental impact to consider. Often those who suffer with eating distress are going through difficult problems and painful feelings which either trigger the illness, disguise the illness or become side effects.
For example, compulsive eating see's individuals rely on food for emotional support and/or as a way of masking problems. The increased food consumption will more often than not lead to considerable weight gain which will ultimately impact confidence and self esteem.
Prevalence of eating disorders
According to figures from eating disorder charity Beat, an estimated one million people in the UK are affected by an eating disorder each year. There has been a significant rise in eating disorders during recent years and though they can occur in any age and any sex, as many as one women in every 20 will suffer from some form of eating distress in their life with the majority aged between 14 and 25 years old15.
Further to this, figures also suggest that one in every hundred women in the UK between the ages of 15 and 30 will experience anorexia nervosa with the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) reporting the incidence of anorexia nervosa to be around 19 per 100,000 of the population per year for women and 2 per every 100,000 per year for men.
In addition to this NICE have also estimated the prevalence for bulimia nervosa to be between 0.5 and 1.0 per cent for women, with around 90 per cent of those diagnosed thought to be girls16.
Despite the majority of eating disorder sufferer's being female an estimated 10 per cent of sufferers are male, with approximately 20 per cent of male sufferers identifying themselves as gay17.
Though figures such as these are able to give us a picture of eating disorders in the UK, it is important to note than many cases of eating disorders are either unreported or undiagnosed, and the actual figures are likely to be far higher. beat estimate that there may be as many as 1.5 million people in the UK suffering from some form of eating disorder.
Common forms of eating distress (please click the links for further information):
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a condition characterised by a range of behavioural issues associated with poor attention span, and it is thought to effect around 1.7 per cent of the UK population.
Usually the sufferer will experience various symptoms which may include some or all of the following: Attention difficulties e.g inability to sustain attention and becoming easily distracted, Hyperactivity e.g running around excessively, noisy play, fidgeting and difficulty engaging in quiet leisure activities, Impulsive actions e.g failure to wait their turn in group situations and excessive talking without appropriate response to social constraint. In terms of causes there are certain biological factors which are thought to come into play. For example, various studies of twins suggest a genetic link to ADHD, with 80-90 per cent of identical twins both having ADHD18.
Environmental factors such as family stress and educational difficulties are also thought to play a part.
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)This condition involves a range of psychological symptoms which an individual experiences following on from either witnessing or involvement in a traumatic event such as a serious accident or military combat.
The World Health Organisation describe PTSD as: ' A delayed or protracted response to a stressful event or situation (either short of long-lasting) of an exceptionally threatening or long-lasting nature, which is likely to cause pervasive distress in almost anyone.'
Symptoms may include one or more of the following: flashbacks of the traumatic event, nightmares, intrusive thoughts and information, feeling detached and emotionally numb, unable to express affection, disturbed sleep, irritability, aggressive behaviour and a lack of concentration.
Mental health charity Mind estimate that between 1.5 and 3.5 per cent of the general population are likely to be affected by PTSD at some point during their lives19.
Sexual identityCoping with one's sexual identity is something that we all must do at some point, but the process is often difficult and proves harder for some than it does for others.
During our teenage years when identity in general is being questioned, sexual identity can be especially troubling. Young homosexuals or individuals who are questioning their birth gender are sometimes told they are going through a 'phase', which they will grow out of, which only encourages denial and negative feelings about gender dysphoria or being lesbian, gay or bisexual.
Issues regarding sexual identity can often be difficult to talk about even with our family and closest friends, but nevertheless it is important that individuals recognise their natural inclinations and seek support if they feel it is needed.
Gender Dysphoria/ Gender Identity Disorder (GID)
Gender dysphoria, otherwise known as 'gender identity disorder' is the medical term used to describe confusion and discomfort about birth gender.
Often, individuals who do feel as though they have been born the wrong gender are usually aware there is 'something wrong' at an early age and may be afraid to express their feelings publicly for fear of rejection or because they feel guilty and ashamed. It is feelings such as these which unfortunately lead to the development of depression and anxiety in many individuals.
Though there is currently no research on the matter, the number of referrals to gender clinics suggests that around one in 30,000 men and one in 100,000 women seek gender reassignment surgery 20. Although, the Gender Identity Research and Education Society (GIRES) estimates that around 15,000 people in the UK are receiving some form of medical support for gender dysphoria, which is around one in 4,000 of the whole population.